Rooting is a big word in the Android community. When you root your device you are giving yourself access to more apps and ways to use your device. To root your device you need to use a process called flashing which installs a new operating system on your phone.
This post will give you step by step guide on how to root Samsung Galaxy M31s.
Rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s with PC
Do you know that the Android SDK ( Software Development Kit) tool is a downloadable piece enlisting a set of android debugging and development programs? Yes, it is! While you want to emulate the android project, like rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s android smartphone, or when you want to create and test the android applications, both using a PC, the SDK tools play the game!
Which computer do you use? Windows? Linux? Or, do you want an Apple Mac to take you through?
Whatsoever it is, no worries! A vast range of android rooting models exist.
Keep reading to explore all!
How to Root Samsung Galaxy M31s with Windows PC?
You have a Windows PC to root Samsung Galaxy M31s, the steps are more but easy to follow! Discover how.
- Step 1 – First of all, head to the Settings of your Samsung Galaxy M31s. Can you see the About Phone option on the screen at the bottom of the menu? Tap it open!
- Step 2 – What do you see now? The menu stating, Baseband Version, Kernel Version, and then Build Number. The third one is the call! Press it 7 times. It shall open up the Developer Version for you.
- Step 3 – Return to the Settings again. Do you see the Developer options now? This particular menu comprises the various debugging options that are hidden otherwise.
- Step 4 – The button named OEM unlocking is the next call! It is available right below the button named, 'Enable Bluetooth HCI Snoop Log'. Select and tap! Thereupon, enabling your phone to be rooted.
- Step 5 – Switch to your Windows Computer and download Odin. Here, you have to stay alert. A mishap in downloading the auto-root file shall fall heavy on you. Download the appropriate one and install it on your PC.
- Step 6 – Go to a new tab on the browser and search for a USB driver, the one that suits the Samsung Galaxy M31s model! The driver shall help link the two devices and enable the phone's debugging option on your PC.
- Step 7 – Remember the zip auto-root file that you downloaded on your PC? Right-click it and select the Extract option. The extracted file shall now come up. Rename it at your convenience and keep it on hold!
- Step 8 – Back to your smartphone, the one you want to root! Here, you have to press & hold the home button, along with the power and volume-down buttons, together, at the same time! Now, please allow it some time to enter into the Download mode.
- Step 9 – Once, the previous step is successful, connect your phone to the PC using the USB cable. Meanwhile, your phone is in download mode, and Odin running on your desktop. Then, wait for some time.
- Step 10 – Did the Odin come up with a new display notification, stated as ' Added Message'? Thy be an indication that your smartphone and Odin have activated the connection and are working!
- Step 11 – What do you see next? Log menu appearing, with five different options? The one named AP is the call here! As soon as you select it, Odin shall prompt you to browse a file.
- Step 12 – Herein, you have to select the auto-root file you extracted, renamed, and kept hold of! Click it open, and go to tap the start button.
Your phone rooting has commenced. Watch until your phone reboots through, and then boot into Android once the process is complete.
Hurray! You have successfully rooted your Samsung Galaxy M31s.
How to Root your Samsung Galaxy M31s using Linux?
For Linux, you will get the opportunity to an indirect rooting facility with tools like Magisk in action, and where you can leave your system partition to work alone. Not saying in windows PC, Magisk won't work, but compatibility with various Linus models with the tool in action here is intensive and secure.
Step 1 – As we see in the root Samsung Galaxy M31s with windows PC column, unlocking the bootloader is the same, obviously because the Android phone shall give a consistent key to access unlock. Go to the Settings – To, About Phone – To, Build Number – And tap a couple of times!
Developer Mode On!
Return to Settings – Into Developer Options – Enable OEM Unlocking, – And allow USB debugging!
Step 2 – Here, continuing with the process of booting, move to the Computer – Connect with the phone, – and Extract ADB tools instead of Odin. Then, open the command prompt terminal and add extracted zip file as 'cd platforms tools'.
Step 3 – See, now you have to locate your device and unlock the bootloader. Linux will allow you to boot your android mobile into Fastboot mode.
Press Hold the Power button – Together with the Power-up button, – Search from the list of fastboot Android devices, – And unlock!
Step 4 – Unlike the previous method of Rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s, in this one, you have to download a custom recovery or a Third Party Recovery. For this purpose, the TWRP website is the spot to hit!
[Please See: Be alert and make sure you download the latest version for your Samsung Galaxy M31s!]
Step 5 – Back again to Phone – Reboot to bootloader! Further, go back to the computer, install the custom recovery file, and flash.
Step 6 – Another file to download, coming the way! It is a super-user application that unlocks the last key to root with Linux. It is none other than Magisk. Please use the actual version of this package.
Step 7 – On the Android device, select to install from zipping and look for the Magisk file and flash it using the third party recovery. Once complete, reboot your smartphone and allow it to boot into Android.
Can you open the Magisk manager now?
Congratulations, you have successfully rooted your Samsung Galaxy M31s and can now enjoy the privilege of many apps with the Magisk in your phone's system!
How to root Samsung Galaxy M31s with Mac?
You get to choose from among the many, but now, 2 best types of Software Programs and determine the course of rooting. Each of these plans comes with a different set of pros and cons, and you are free to determine according to your terms!
This rooting solution, without putting your personal information at risk, helps deliver instant results in the method of rooting android phones with Mac. With high efficiency and speed, the tool asks you to start!
- Step 1 – Open your Mac and download the application UNREVOKED! Install and keep!
- Step 2 – Reach out to your Phone. After that, enable the USB debugging option in the very same way as before.
- Setting – About Phone – Build Number ( 7 Taps). Then again, Settings – The 'new' Developer Options – USB debugging + OEM Unlocking!
- Step 3 – In this step, you have to plug the Android smartphone into the MAC, open the rooting program.
Your device is being Detected!
- Step 4 – Once the program connects and works for your Samsung Galaxy S6, your phone will start to root automatically!
- Step 5 – And, on the other, your phone will reboot itself when the program stands complete.
Gaining access in almost all phones and tablets, this rooting program guarantees safety by detecting and toppling the end-to-end vulnerability for the master 'key'. Being effortless to use, the tool calls to begin the show!
- Step 1 – Get your Mac ready, search for Cydia Impactor, recheck the compatibility, and download.
- Step 2 – When successful, extract the package and run the file.
- Step 3 – Take your phone now! Enable the USB debugging mode. How? Same as the previous methods,
- Settings – About Us – Build Number (Tap a few times) – Back to Settings – Developer Options (newly added) – 1) OEM Unlocking, and then 2) USB debugging.
- Step 4 – To your Mac device now! Connect it to the Samsung Galaxy M31s with the USB, of course!
- Here, the software program runs in the background, detecting the device and thereafter providing a set of options.
- Step 5 – To the dropdown Menu! Select and type "# drop SuperSU to /system/xbin/su", and the final call. Click on the start button!
Give some time for the phone to root and reboot itself to Android. Let it breathe! Then, install a SuperSU application and get better access to the root files.
Keep tweaking and stylizing your Samsung Galaxy M31s. But, with multiple layers of introspection prior to it!
Root your Samsung Galaxy M31s with PC: Through Rooting apps?
When you do not have a Mac,
Yet, considers one-click affairs as a suitable method, an easy and effortless to use one! You can use many other rooting apps that will help you root your Samsung Galaxy M31s from your PC but with only a One-click CTA (Call to Action)!
Learn How to root Samsung Galaxy M31s with PC by using these User-friendly rooting apps! Perhaps, there are multiple apps that support so, but here, the taken-three shall give us the best and simplest methodology.
Even though you won't get an unroot opportunity later on to combat the void warranty, the high success rate of this one-click root method can take you through just in 3, 2, 1, go!
- Step 1 – The primary task is anytime downloading and installing the application, iRoot.
- Step 2 – Enable USB debugging on your phone, connect it to the PC, and once detected, tap the Connect Device button.
- Step 3 – On your PC, browse to the Manufacturing website, here the Samsung, and get a USB driver for installation.
- So, your phone is ready, and so is your computer!
- Step 4 – The iRoot running in the background shall detect the Android device and start connecting.
- Step 5 – When successful, click the Root option and start. Give some time for your phone to reboot back to Android on its own.
Dive into the customization features thereupon!
Often referred to as the friendliest With PC Rooting Software, dr.fone, allows a One-Click support system in your PC, and even supply the unroot features! You can get it free and set it to root in five simple steps.
- Step 1 – Open your PC and browse for the rooting program as 'dr.fone. for PC'. Then, download and install!
- Step 2 – Unlock the USB debugging option same as the previous methods, being a consistent key for android. And connect your phone to the PC.
- Step 3 – Wait until the PC connects to the Android device! After the connection works, start the program.
- Step 4 – Now, the dr.fone running on your computer shall try to detect the Android program and allow notification of root. Tap the Root Now option!
- Step 5 – Be watchful! Your phone will herein ask you to confirm. As soon as the phone pops up with a request to confirm rooting. Click on it and fetch a sigh of relief!
Compatible with the Windows Application, this one-click rooting app can be used to get full control of your android phone. It's easy to use and comes with a high rank on the success graph. So, if you are using a Windows PC, get ready!
- Step 1 – Browse Root Genius for PC and download and install it. Run the program therein!
- Step 2 – Turn your phone into the Developer mode in three short steps. Settings < About Phone < Builder Number – 7 Taps! Get into the Developer Options once the mode is on and click the USB debugging and OEM unlocking option. Then, connect your phone to the PC.
- Step 3 – Give the driver some time to load and detect the phone. Whenever it's successful, follow the root instructions given in the program.
- Step 4 – Read the notification at least more than once before starting to root. Click on the Root Now button and wait for the system to root. When the handset reboots itself to the android version, please keep the USB plugin connection on!
- Step 5 – Well, you can just recheck whether you have successfully rooted or not! Download the Root Checker app from the Play store. Check and confirm!
Grab some good deals out of these 10 minutes of technical skills!
Root your Samsung Galaxy M31s with PC: Using CF-Auto-Root!
In this regard,
Using the CF-Auto root program is a boon to hold because of the powerful compatibility rate it shares with Android handsets like that of Samsung, Motorola, and also the Nexus devices. So, rooting your Samsung Galaxy M31s with a PC becomes much more significant! However, a little complex to understand!
Relax! The steps are very easy to memorize when you read them in-depth!
- Step 1 – Browse your PC and visit the CF Auto Root page. Press the Ctrl + F buttons together, and type in Samsung Galaxy M31s. Match the extract device code and get started to download. Make sure to download the one given beside the device name!
- Step 2 – Install after download, and return to your phone. Turn it off!
- Step 3 – Then, tap the Volume-down, home, & power button simultaneously to boot the Android set into the download mode.
- Step 4 – Turn towards the PC, and launch Odin. You will get it on the Samsung website, the manufacturer's one! Check the Auto Reboot provision and the reset time. Thereafter, press PDA and find the downloaded zip file, the CF Auto Root program.
- Step 5 – The final call! Click Start and begin rooting your smartphone!
Did it show success? Now, you can cross-check with the Root Checker and enhance the productivity of your old phone!
Advantages of Rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s with PC
Now that you know the different methods of rooting android devices with a PC, you certainly know how advantageous it is. No doubt, you will evaluate and compare then in your self-debate of Root with PC and that without PC.
- Yes, rooting android phones with a PC can benefit you with higher success stories. It is, precisely, because the rooting software programs when operating with a PC shall not put too much pressure upon your phone in terms of performance and therefore smoothen the rooting process through shared responsibility. Between the Android device and the PC applications!
- Well, battery life, being consumed to a great degree while rooting, stands to be crucial. Therefore, the next benefit that rooting with PC offers is it lengthens the life of your phone's battery during the process by utilizing the other Tech, so that there is no disruption midway. Henceforth, the possibility of your phone getting bricked is really minimal by rooting your android phone on PC.
- You shall also find a wide array of applications to root with PC. The process is diverse in nature, indeed! You can use a third-party system to root, a one-click tool that securely serves, and even the simple auto-root programs. Your choices and options are much more varied as compared to root without PC.
Disadvantages of Rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s with PC
However, it also has some disadvantages that are not present in the Root without PC methodologies. Are you trying to locate and understand what they are?
- The first disadvantage is the distribution of efforts in rooting to two different techs also means the distribution of risks to the two of them! By chance, if you download and install a malicious program containing malware, your data on the PC also stands at gunpoint of scammers. Can you afford that risk for the greater reward?
- The second demerit of rooting with PC is none other than the time & effort investment, even for the one-click affairs! You have to follow so many steps that are involved in connecting the two devices and even beyond. You have to be attentive while shifting in-between the two devices and accurately execute the step-by-step instructions. Rethink another time whether you are actually ready to invest much time & effort in optimizing the old phone that you lost all hopes from!
- Alongside, another discredit of rooting with PC can never go obsolete even though the rest of the two instances be feasible for you to take chance! What is it? Envision yourself reading this in your long-distance journey, but alas! You have to wait until you get a PC. It essentially means the handiness of utilizing tech is not a provision you find here. You cannot actually root your phone anywhere and anytime!
But, these issues are not found in the case of rooting without a PC. A different setback may appear but not the ones listed above.
Why not glance through those methods as well and then decide which one suits the best? As you know, you can only choose one among so many!
How to root Samsung Galaxy M31s without PC – Dive into the methods!
When you are tired of the traditional methods of rooting applications, try out the rooting methods directly from your android mobile that you want to root.
You don't have a PC with you now? Pat yourself for encountering Mobilehan. He shall show you the alternatives that you have never imagined before. The Alternatives – To Root Samsung Galaxy M31s Without PC!
Continue reading with me to dive into the rooting methods without a PC!
Root Samsung Galaxy M31s without PC: Rooting Apps in action!
When seamless rooting apps are in action,
You can proceed with the process of rooting your android phone from anywhere and at any time. It has become much more convenient, rising into remembering as a boon of 2022! Indeed, these rooting apps came up as a support channel for a large variety of android specifications, covering a minimum of 500 different android devices.
Of course, compatibility is not the same for all, but security is at the peak unless you download a different file out of negligence. For avoiding all sorts of mistakes in the course, learn how to root without PC via these popular rooting apps of today!
Designed and innovated by the Mgyun team, Vroot is that one-key rooting app where 8000+ android devices earn support, and that too in different languages like Chinese, English, and others. So, no matter which corner of the world you reside in, you can use the app in your own mother tongue and acquire the advantages of it. How? Through some basic steps as follows!
- Step 1 – The primary role you play here is to allow the installation. What to do? Head towards the phone's Settings, then to the security section, and allow Unknown Sources.
- Step 2 – Now, you can walk up freely to the online store and download the Vroot apk file on your phone. Make sure you download the correct version, the one compatible with your particular device, and install it thereupon!
- Step 3 – I hope your phone is fully charged and all backups are done already! If not, do that and continue! Click open the apk file to run the program.
- Step 4 – As soon as the Vroot software detects your device, click the Root button and wait for the program to function. Once it stands complete, your phone will reboot automatically and come back to Android.
Can you see a few special apps installed alongside? Now that your device is rooted, you can uninstall them or use them as per your need. Enjoy your digital life with the newly innovated smartphone!
This unique APK package developed in 2010, Z4 Root, hits the 2022 tech market with temporary rooting applications. It's a free package you can avail of and a leading one to fix your old phone in the domain of memory leakage. So, root straight from your android smartphone, without the requirement of another device, in just a few steps!
- Step 1 – Just similar to the other methods of rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s without PC, here also the first step calls for the allowance of download & installation. So, quickly go to the Settings – then to the Security Menu – And enable the Unknown Sources option.
- Step 2 – The next step is certainly download and installation. Thus, you have to search for the Z4 Root apk file, check the compatibility list, and tap to download & install.
- Step 3 – Is your download complete? Now, open the application and press the root button. You shall get two different options to choose from among. The first one is to root your Android device permanently, and the second is to root your phone temporarily. The choice is yours!
- Step 4 – Click on the one that suits your requirement and wait for the phone to root, and then reboot itself.
When the success notification pops up, switch on your smartphone and check if it has rooted. Sit back if rooted, and start fixing your phone's performance errors.
Universal Android Root
Globally renowned for its versatility, the Universal Android Root software, emerges on the stage with an added benefit, namely, the recovery of data if not backed up before and lost in the way of rooting. You can use this efficient application to root your android phone without a PC in about 2 to 3 minutes. For that, follow the step-by-step guide given below.
- Step 1 – Search the apk file for this application on the web and download it.
- Step 2 – After downloading, move to the File Manager on your phone and enter the download options. Can you locate the recently downloaded Universal Android Root Apk file? Tap the install button.
- Step 3 – Not happening? Go to the Settings, and turn on the Unknown Sources option from the security menu. See, it works now! Install the application and launch it.
- Step 4 – Then, navigate the drop-down menu and select the super-user. In this context, make sure to select the one that works for the android version of your Samsung Galaxy S6. You get two options – To Root and Unroot Samsung Galaxy M31s! Obviously, the former is the call.
- Step 5 – Tap the root button and relax!
After a few seconds, a success notification shall appear on the phone screen, and the device shall automatically reboot itself. Here you go, into the field of abundant new features and tech support!
This open-source and freeware application, Towel Root, comes as a small yet compact rooting program with an intuitive and simple interface to make your one-click rooting without any PC, much more hassle-free! In fact, you won't require any internet connection to root using this app. All you need to do is follow this step-by-step guide!
- Step 1 – The primary task is to activate the Unknown Sources option from the security table of your phone's Settings.
- Step 2 – Then, type Towel Root apk file download, enter the site, choose the suitable version for your android mobile, and download. After that, move to the File Manager – to Recent downloads – The Apk file – And tap to launch!
- Step 3 – The moment you open it, what do you see on the screen? The program welcomes you directly into the main step. The step to root!
- Step 4 – 'Make it Ra1n', the only button available, is thy call! Tap the option and wait till your phone is successfully rooted.
Isn't it simpler than ever before? Now, download a custom ROM and cherish!
Coming from the XDA forum, WeakSauce holds a different rooting feature altogether! It shall root your phone temporarily, leaving no room for malware and data leakage. This is why the app allows you to automatically disable rooting after you have enjoyed the administrator-level access and acquired what you wanted just by uninstalling the app. Thus, you can quickly get hold of it in a few clicks and let it go thereafter.
- Step 1 – Unlock the Unknown Sources option from the Settings and download the WeakSauce Apk file. Install it therein!
- Step 2 – Find the Apk file from the Download Manager of your phone and tap it open.
- Step 3 – Once you launch the application, does a disclaimer pop up? What does it say? Read carefully! The terms and conditions are stated here!
- Step 4 – Then, Click on the Yes button to start the process and wait for some time. After somewhat around 60 seconds, when the success bell rings, exit the app, not install it!
- Step 5 – You have to download a super-user now. So, go to the Google Play Store and search for SuperSu. Download and install it thereupon!
- Step 6 – Reboot your android handset and wait for the phone to be rooted automatically.
That's it! You may, now, hit the road of Tech wonder!
Did you determine which method of rooting you shall follow? Or, are you waiting for some more options to select?
Well, in this regard, Mobilehan can help you learn about some more methodologies. But, he insists that the upcoming methodology in the very next columns shall not suit the beginners without a detailed understanding of the Android system. However, it is one of the best methods for individuals who have an idea of the android system and have rooted other phones previously.
Root your Android with system-less applications
A system-less interface shall help create an alternate mask of your Samsung Galaxy M31s but won't change the android system codes!
Even though there is a couple of system-less application that allows rooting android devices by enabling the system partition to work on its own, the one we shall discuss today is Magisk. It is one of the most renowned software programs that help individuals to change the Phone's system without any modification of the core code. Now, it is time to unveil the process to go about!
Step 1 – Primarily, you have to reach out to the site named GitHub. This site shall provide you with the Magisk application and others as well. Since, we are proceeding with the former, get ready to download it from there.
[Please See: You must be thinking that when many other sites provide the option of downloading Magisk, why GitHub! Amidst so many sites, GitHub is an official and reliable one where you have no chance to end up with a compromised download.]
Step 2 – Is the download complete? Now, please turn your phone off and enable the bootloader screen. How?
Press the power button or volume down button – further tap the volume down button again – Click on Recovery!
Step 3 – After the previous task is complete, you have to go back to the TWRP (Team Work Recovery Project). Here, you have to click on the install option, and thereupon choose the Magisk file from the download folder.
Step 4 – Once installation is successful, launch the program and go to the option emphasized as, 'Run Cache & Dalvik'. Check the options at the bottom of the screen, it's available there! Then, reboot your phone to return to Android.
Step 5 – Now, run the program and wait for its update. Here, you shall fetch a 360-degree view of the app's interface, and you're done!
Make as many changes as you want because the system is all yours now!
Hey, please halt a little!
The Last stoppage for learning a method coming soon! This method of rooting, without any app, shall encompass only a 2 minutes endeavor.
How to root Samsung Galaxy M31s with SuperSU?
When all methods fail,
Rooting an android smartphone with SuperSU definitely works! It is, precisely, because the program works on every recovery option.
In this method, the root script is most likely placed inside the system folder. That's why it may seem a bit tricky for you. But, Mobilehan says that for absolute success, thy be the right choice, only if you follow the step-by-step guide thoroughly!
- Step 1 – The first task is to download the SuperSU root script.zip.
- Step 2 – Next, you have to put your android mobile into recovery mode. For this purpose, get hold of the TWRP Recovery or any other that suits you. Thereafter, press the install option available in the project, and tap on the SuperSU.zip.
- Step 3 – Following the previous task, you have to flash the file by simply swiping it. Here, the finishing time may take a while!
- Step 4 – The moment flashing is complete, the screen shall immediately open up onto a new tab. Here, you shall find two options – One is the 'Wipe Cache/Dalvik' and another is the ' Reboot System'. The former one is the call! Tap the button and swipe it for confirmation.
- Step 5 – Sometimes, the TWRP Recovery asks to further install the SuperSU file as not being able to recognize the one already installed on your Samsung Galaxy M31s. Hence, click the 'Do not install' option.
- Step 6 – You need not worry as your device is already rooted. Can you see the new SuperSU app in the Menu? That's enough to make your way for regulating the root privileges.
- So, regulate to the core and heart of your Samsung Galaxy M31s now!
Advantages of Rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s without PC
Now that you have grasped the different methodologies of rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s without PC, you certainly have an idea about what makes it better than rooting with PC. Yet again, the advantages of one over another are always subjective and therefore vary from person to person. The only static ones are those that do not engage themselves in the debate but simply uphold the perks. Some of them are listed below!
- Rooting without a PC can be advantageous when you don't have a separate device to seek support and yet want to root your phone. It is also beneficial for rooting instantly anywhere, even during your evening walk or maybe on a vacation tour!
- With Samsung Galaxy M31s root methods without a PC, you can similarly enjoy the one-click affairs more since all the rooting apps mainly offer so! Henceforth, a two to three minutes span from your rigid schedule can also work!
- Furthermore, these methods are mostly free from complex technicalities that only the Tech-savvies can get through. So, beginners shall get a bonus herein!
- In fact, some rooting apps of 2022 offers provision not to void out the warranty. Each of the apps for rooting without PC comes with some of the other unique features that may serve your purpose!
- On top of that, in the case of an indirect root method without PC, alteration occurs only in the boot partition. Thus, you can enjoy seamless access to Google Play.
Disadvantages of Rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s without PC
On the very same note, the methods of rooting Samsung Galaxy M31s without PC leaves certain disadvantages. If you do not want to fall prey to them, see what may happen and stay cautious!
- The rooting apps of 2022, allowing you to root Samsung Galaxy M31s without a PC, may appear with a secure disguise. But, on installation, they may tamper the Phone's system with viruses. Such a scenario occurs when these apps are purchased or downloaded from an unofficial or unauthorized site.
- Besides, all rooting apps do not come with an unroot option, so if an issue arises, the chance of refixing it is nominal. A permanent rooting may not work in your favor!
- Also, the system-less methods to root Samsung Galaxy M31s without PC can bring along some deficits, especially for the Samsung users. If you are the one, you know whether a knock-security enabled feature is affixed to your phone or not. The one that helps individuals to create a difference between the personal and professional environments within the digital life! Alas! Such a feature prevents rooting, and flashing a low-quality boot image at the time of recovery can turn your phone useless forever!
After reading all the methods to root Samsung Galaxy M31s with Pc and that without it, what is your final call? Let Mobilehan know about it!
So, enjoy the tech lessons and capitalize them to the fullest because Mobilehan shall always appear like an angel guiding you through the usage of modern technologies. Thereupon, breaking through the dungeons of tough technicalities and accomplishing the conventional means of application, more efficient than never before!
Continue having debates within yourself and allow us to help solve them! Thank you!